The power of nano-millimeter organisms Scary Viruses are a very special form of life; nothing applies to them what applies to other forms of microorganisms. They are capable of infecting every living cell and forcing it to shift its metabolism from its own maintenance to the creation of new viruses. Surely each of us will encounter at least one virus at one point in our lives, but here are a few that we would not like to encounter because they are the scariest ones.
List of the 10 most scary viruses in the World:
10. FLU (influenza virus)
Flu is more common in our lives than we might think. Since we are probably sick with the flu almost every year, it is not enough to recognize its signs but to know how to treat it and protect ourselves from it.
Influenza occurs seasonally and it is unlikely that the flu will make us ill in the fall or late spring. Unlike the common cold, the flu usually starts suddenly: severe muscle and joint pain, fever, dry cough, pain behind the eyes, and headache.
To get the flu, we first have to get in touch with the virus. It can enter the body through tiny droplets and secretions from the respiratory system of an infected person, and we can also contract it indirectly: through contact with objects that contain secretions from the respiratory system and viruses.
During the flu season, nearly 500,000 people worldwide die from the disease. From time to time, when a new type of flu develops, a pandemic scale of the disease is possible – with an incredibly high mortality rate. The deadliest flu in human history, better known as the Spanish Fever, erupted in 1918 and infected 40 percent of the world’s population – killing over 50 million people.
Although this is scary, not every flu can be deadly and there are vaccines against it. Vaccination prevents heavy flu, reduces hospitalizations and prevents bacterial pneumonia.
If we do not have other diseases at the same time, the flu usually passes without complications and is not dangerous.
9. MARBURG AND EBOLA VIRUSES
Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related. Both viruses originate in Africa, where there have been occasional outbreaks of disease over the last decades. Scientists discovered the Marburg virus in 1967 after a minor epidemic that appeared in laboratory workers in Germany. The carriers were, as it turned out, infected monkeys from Uganda. Similar to Ebola, the Marburg virus causes high temperatures and bleeding that results in shock, organ failure and death. During the epidemic that hit the state of Congo in 2000, 80 percent of the infected cases recorded were fatal.
The first recorded outbreak of the Ebola virus caught Sudan and Congo in 1976. It is transmitted through blood, other body fluids or through infected tissue of humans or animals. Certain types of this virus can be extremely fatal, so in infected Sudan, the death rate has reached 71%, while the epidemic in Africa was the largest in history, according to the World Health Organization.
The Ebola virus and the Marburg virus are difficult to diagnose because the signs and symptoms resemble those of other diseases, such as typhoid and malaria. No antiviral drug has yet been shown to be effective in treating these viruses. Doctors and scientists are exploring new treatment options and vaccines. Some of the results are promising, but further testing will be needed.
Rabies is a deadly encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the brain and spinal cord) caused by a rabies virus from the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is characterized by psychomotor restlessness, hydrophobia (water rejection) and progressive muscle paralysis. When illness occurs, death is almost inevitable.
Rabies is in some ways a specific infectious disease that requires care in intensive care. It is not necessary to isolate the patient in particular because there is no known interhuman transmission of the infectious agent of this disease, although such possibilities cannot be completely excluded.
When rabies appears as a disease, death is almost inevitable, and the problem of prevention is of paramount importance.
Therefore, the basic measures and procedures for the prevention of rabies are:
risk assessment for rabies infection:
- treatment (cleaning and disinfection) of the wound after the bite or injury,
- use of an anti-rabic vaccine
- prevention of rabies in animals.
Although vaccines, which have been in use since the 1920s, have drastically reduced the incidence of the disease, it is still a very serious threat in India and parts of Africa.
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7. HIV(Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
In the modern world, the title of the most deadly virus could be carried out by HIV. Just over 36 million people have died from the virus since the disease was first discovered in the 1980s.
Strong medicines allow patients to live longer, but the disease continues to exist in low-income countries, with nearly 95 percent of those affected. According to the World Health Organization, 1 in 20 Sub-Saharan African adults is HIV positive.
HIV infection is transmitted by the exchange of the following bodily fluids which are secreted in the male genital organs and women during sexual intercourse as well as through blood. Fluids such as saliva, tears, urine also contain the virus, but in very small amounts, insufficient to transmit the virus.
HIV/AIDS is an extremely dangerous disease and everyone who is often sexually active and not using a condom or isused the same injection needle with someone for whatever reason – needs to be tested.
The first HIV symptoms usually occur quickly, only a month or two after you have been exposed to the HIV virus. Then the first phase of HIV infection begins.
No symptoms – some people have no symptoms during this phase
- Symptoms reminiscent of flu symptoms
- high temperature
- A headache
- Magnification of lymph nodes
Then, as if everything has been resolved, you may not notice any AIDS symptoms in the coming years. This is known as the latent phase. It usually lasts several (maybe over 10) years.
This virus was first observed in the United States in 1993 when a young Navaho couple passed away just days after the first syndromes of the disease. A few months later, scientists were able to isolate the virus from the deer blood they found near the houses of a diseased family. To date, over 600 people have contracted the virus, of which 36 percent have fatalities.
The incubation lasts 7-36 days. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome begins with fever, joint pain, muscle aches and symptoms of tracheobronchitis. There are often headaches, low back pain, and vomiting.
Many patients die on day 5 of illness. There are also changes in the myocardium in this infection. They lead to a weakening of the functions of organs and, ultimately, to their deficiency. Death is due to bleeding, hypovolemic shock, and multiorgan failure.
5. DENGUE FEVER
This virus first appeared in the 1950s in the Philippines and Thailand and has continued to spread. According to World Health Organization research, 50 to 100 million people suffer from the disease per year, but the mortality rate is lower than other diseases – about 2.5%. Mosquitoes are the most common transmitter of this virus, and as a result of the increasing warming and changing climate, rapid development and spread of this disease are predicted. If left untreated, this disease can lead to consequences similar to Ebola, and mortality can be as high as 20 percent.
Dengue fever occurs with a sudden increase in temperature followed by fever, muscle, and joint pain, crosses, retroorbital severe headaches and exhaustion. The fever is continuous for 2-7 days. Often there is pale pink exanthema, sometimes hepatosplenomegaly.
4. ROTA VIRUS
In modern times, two vaccines are capable of stopping this virus, which most commonly attacks infants and young children. This virus is spreading at a high rate of speed and is manifested by gastrointestinal problems. Like other diseases, it is deadly in underdeveloped parts of the world – 430,000 children under the age of 5 died from rotavirus infections in 2008.
3. LASSA VIRUS
The virus exists in West Africa (Nigeria, Liberia, Sierra Leone). His reservoir is small rats that are likely to contaminate foodstuffs with saliva, urine or feces. Human-to-human transmission occurs through contact with urine, feces, saliva or blood. So far, infections have been reported, with few exceptions, only in the above population, but can be individually imported into Europe as well.
After incubation of 1-21 days, the onset of the disease is gradual, with fever, myalgia, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, and signs of inflammation of the upper respiratory tract and conjunctiva. The disease lasts 2-3 weeks on average. It can end in death in 15-45% of cases, up to 80% in young children. When engaging the nervous system, signs of serous meningitis or encephalitis, with convulsions and cerebral ataxia are manifested. Transient blindness and permanent hearing damage can result from illness.
2. CORONA VIRUS
These days we are witnessing the emergence of a new virus and its victims. It infected thousands, closed borders and turned parts of China into a prison. But the virus that causes the new disease does not yet have a proper name. They called it the coronavirus. But that’s the name of the virus group it belongs to. It was also given a temporary name – 2019-nCoV.
The virus has been registered in 25 countries around the world, including Russia, Britain, Sweden, Italy. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared a state of emergency because of the virus’s corona globally as the virus continues to spread beyond China’s borders.
Coronaviruses cause respiratory infections in children and adults, but sometimes they cause enteritis too. After a short incubation (2-5 days), a clinical picture of a common cold emerges sneezing, fever. The lower respiratory tract may also be affected, but this is rare.
Human coronaviruses most commonly spread from the infected person to others
- air coughing and sneezing
- Close personal contact, such as touching or shaking hands
- Touch an object or surface with a virus on it, then touch your mouth, nose or eyes before washing your hands
- Rarely, fecal contamination
HOW TO PROTECT FROM THE VIRUS CORONA?
There are currently no vaccines available to protect you against human coronavirus infection. You may be able to reduce the risk of infection by doing the following
- Wash your hands frequently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth with your hands washed
- Avoid close contact with sick people
1. Zika virus
The virus is native to Africa and is named after the tropical Zika forest near Lake Victoria in Uganda, where it was first isolated in monkeys in 1947. The Zika virus then spread along equatorial Africa and later into Asia, Polynesia, and several years ago in America. It is transmitted by a tropical mosquito. Infection occurs in humans after being stabbed by a female mosquito.
The first symptoms appear only a few days after the mosquito bite, and most of those infected fall into a mild fever and get a rash. Conjunctivitis, joint, and muscle pain and fatigue can also occur, and symptoms usually last two to seven days.
Zika is very dangerous for pregnant women because infection with the virus in pregnancy can result in the birth of children with microcephaly. It is a rare congenital deformity in which, due to the abnormal development of the fetus in the womb, the baby is born with a smaller head and brain damage.
The only way to prevent Zika virus infection is to protect yourself from mosquito bites, by using appropriate repellents and wearing protective clothing. Going to areas where the disease has occurred and where it is endemic should be avoided. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine for this disease for now. The development of the vaccine is intensive, but it is a time-consuming process so that all the necessary tests and its safety can be performed.
Knowing all this, and bearing in mind that there are vaccines, however, we must first and foremost make sure that we maintain good physical activity and have a balanced diet, as well as having enough sleep and rest; only in this way will our immune system be strong and will deal with all the viruses and bacteria that threaten us.